1971 saw a steady escalation in violence across the north. The first British soldier to die in Derry perished in a petrol bombing at Westland Street on 1 March.

In July, soldiers killed Seamus Cusack (28) and Desmond Beattie (19). A gulf opened between the British Army and the local community which has never been bridged.

On 8 July, Cusack was shot in William Street. For fear of arrest, he wasn’t taken to a local hospital, but bled to death en route to Letterkenny, 22 miles away in Donegal. He’d been unarmed when shot. But the British Army, establishing a pattern, labelled him a gunman. In rioting that followed, Beattie was shot dead in the Bogside. The Army labelled him a bomber. Forensic tests showed he hadn’t handled explosives.

There was intense, sustained rioting in response, a siege of the British base at Bligh’s Lane and a number of IRA attacks. When a demand for a public inquiry from the newly-formed SDLP was refused, the party withdrew from Stormont. A “people’s inquiry” – chaired by Tony (Lord) Gifford – established the innocence of Cusack and Beattie.  

On 24 July, Damien Harkin (9) was crushed by a British Army lorry in the Bogside.